Sustainable Design Guidelines to Support the WSF Terminal Design Manual: Assessment of Copper and Zinc Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Filtration Media Using Laboratory and Field Scale Column Tests for the Purpose of Urban Stormwater Remediation

This report represents the third and final phase of a three-part effort aimed at providing Sustainable Design Guidelines for
Washington State Ferry terminals, specifically addressing the efficacy for removal of copper and zinc using a biobased filter media
both in laboratory and field conditions. This work supplements previous reports that detail design concepts in implementation of
stormwater strategies to be deployed on waterfront structures. The Bainbridge Island ferry terminal staging area was selected as
the field test site. A pilot scale adsorption column and submersible weir system was designed and constructed to fit within an
existing stormwater vault. Laboratory and field scale continuous flow column studies were performed on raw and torrefied
Douglas-fir Crumbles® (Psuedotsuga menziesii), charcoal (also referred to as biochar), and pea gravel to evaluate their
effectiveness for adsorbing soluble forms of copper and zinc. Laboratory column tests indicated that the most efficient adsorption
for both copper and zinc was non-torrefied wood, followed in order by pea gravel, torrefied wood, and charcoal. Increasing
influent column flow by a factor of four resulted in no statistically significant difference in effluent metal concentration. A deicer
flush performed on torrefied wood and charcoal columns following adsorption tests resulted in over an order of magnitude increase
in column effluent copper and zinc concentration, indicating that bypassing the filtration system during deicer runoff events should
be considered.

Publication Date: 
Friday, October 14, 2016
Publication Number: 
WA-RD 816.3
Last modified: 
03/08/2018 - 15:55
David Yonge, Vince McIntyre, Joseph Smith, Ian Norgaard, Michael Wolcott
Washington State University. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Number of Pages: 
Ferry terminals, Design practices, Water quality management, Pollution control, Runoff, Drainage, Filtration, Filters, Adsorption, Copper, Zinc, Tests, Evaluation and assessment