Manette Bridge, SR 303
The WSDOT Cultural Resources Program maintains an inventory of historic Washington State bridges. All bridges built before 1971 have been evaluated for eligibility for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The NRHP Washington State Historic Highway Bridges (pdf 109 kb) table lists all bridges that have been recommended, nominated, determined eligible or listed on the NRHP.
This list includes Interstate highway bridges and segments of highway containing bridges determined by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to be of exceptional national significance but not yet evaluated for NRHP eligibility.
The Advisory Council of Historic Preservation's Section 106 Exemption Regarding Effects to the Interstate Highway System (2005) excludes the majority of Interstate Highway Features from consideration as a historic property under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). FHWA's List of Nationally and Exceptionally Significant Features of the Federal Interstate Highway System in Washington State are excluded from ACHP's Section 106 Exemption.
At the request of FHWA, the ACHP issued a Program Comment that identifies common post 1945 concrete and steel bridges lacking distinction, not previously listed or determined eligible for listing on the National Register, and not located in or adjacent to historic districts that may be exempted from review under Section 106 of the NHPA. FHWA has published a list of Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges in Washington of exceptional quality excluded from ACHP's Program Comment.
The WSDOT Cultural Resources Program and Visual Engineering Resources Group (VERG) have produced video documentaries of several historic bridges in Washington State. Additional information and photos of these, and other historic bridges is available on the Library of Congress website: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/.
Preview a selection of significant historic bridges in Washington State highlighted below.
Indian Timothy Memorial Bridge
Vancouver- Portland Interstate Bridge
Snake River Bridge at Lyons Ferry
Longview Bridge (Lewis & Clark Bridge)
Yale Bridge (Lewis River Bridge)
Columbia River Bridge at Bridgeport
Hoquiam River Bridge (Simpson Avenue Bridge)
Wishkah River Bridge
Aurora Avenue Bridge
Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge
Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel
Lake Keechelus Snowshed
Chehalis River Riverside Bridge
South Fork Newaukum River Bridge
Spokane River Bridge at Fort Spokane
Spokane River Bridge at Long Lake Dam
Hamma Hamma River Bridges
Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam
Murray Morgan Bridge (City Waterway Bridge/ Thea Foss Waterway Bridge)
Fairfax Bridge (James R. O'Farrell Bridge
McMillin Bridge (Puyallup River Bridge)
Purdy Bridge (Purdy Spit Bridge)
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Baker River Bridge (Henry Thompson Bridge)
Canoe/ Deception Pass Bridge
Columbia River Bridge at Kettle Falls
Harpole Bridge (Manning/ Curtis Lowe Bridge)
Indian Timothy Memorial Bridge (WA-85)
U.S. Route 12 spanning Alpowa Creek - Silcott vicinity, Asotin County
This bridge was dedicated to Ta-Moot-Tsoo (Chief Timothy), a Nez Perce Indian (1800‚1891) who was friendly with early settlers and was credited with saving the lives of Colonel Edward J. Steptoe's troops in 1858 after their defeat in the Battle of Tohotonimme, near Rosalia. The structure is a two-span, reinforced-concrete bridge similar in design to the "rainbow arch" popular in the Midwest in the 1910s and 1920s. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP. The original structure was preserved in place adjacent to SR 12 and the new replacement bridge.
Vancouver‚ Portland Interstate Bridge (WA-86)
Also known as the Columbia River Interstate Bridge
Interstate 5 spanning the Columbia River - Vancouver, Clark County
Built 1915‚1917 (northbound) and 1956‚1958 (southbound)Interstate 5 spanning the Columbia River - Vancouver, Clark County Built 1915‚1917 (northbound) and 1956‚1958 (southbound)
The original 1917 bridge represented an enormous financial and engineering accomplishment, shared by Washington and Oregon. It was designed by the renowned engineering firm of Waddell & Harrington, leaders in the field of vertical lift bridge design in the twentieth century. The 1958 bridge was built as a twin structure to the original. The piers of this bridge were assembled from hollow precast segments. The Northbound segment has been listed in the NRHP.
Snake River Bridge at Lyons Ferry (WA-88)
Also known as the Lyons Ferry Bridge or the Old Columbia River Bridge at Vantage
State Route 261 spanning the Snake River - Columbia River Starbuck vicinity, Columbia County.
Built 1927, moved 1968.
This is the oldest extant steel cantilever bridge in Washington. The bridge was moved from Vantage, WA, in 1968 where it carried the North Central Highway. It is a good example of early twentieth-century cantilever bridge construction using carbon steel. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Longview Bridge (WA-89)
Also known as the Lewis & Clark Bridge or the Columbia River Bridge
State Route 433 spanning the Columbia River - Longview, Cowlitz County.
This bridge, designed by engineer Joseph B. Strauss, was at the time of its construction the longest cantilever span in North America with its 1200-foot central section. The requirement of extreme vertical and horizontal shipping channel clearances resulted in this imposing structure. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Yale Bridge (WA-87)
Also known as the Lewis River Bridge
State Route 503 spanning the Lewis River - Yale vicinity, Cowlitz County
Built 1932, rebuilt 1957, 1958
This bridge is the only steel short-span suspension bridge in the state. It was built economically using cost-saving materials and construction techniques.
This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Columbia River Bridge at Bridgeport (WA-90)
State Route 17 spanning the Columbia River - Bridgeport vicinity, Douglas County.
This bridge is the only large-scale steel truss built in Washington immediately after World War II. Like the Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, it was constructed as part of a federally sponsored hydroelectric dam project.
This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Hoquiam River Bridge (WA-93)
Also known as the Simpson Avenue Bridge
Hoquiam River Bridge (WA-93) - (aka Simpson Avenue Bridge). U.S. Route 101 (Simpson Avenue) spanning the Hoquiam River Hoquiam, Grays Harbor County
The central span of this bridge is an example of a patented double-leaf Strauss underneath counterweight bascule structure. The Strauss Bascule Bridge Company was one of the most important bridge building firms in the United States during the early twentieth century. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Wishkah River Bridge (WA-92)
U.S. Route 12 (Wishkah Street) spanning the Wishkah River Aberdeen, Grays Harbor County.
This structure is a classic example of a patented Strauss "heel-trunnion" bascule bridge. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Aurora Avenue Bridge (WA-107)
Also known as the George Washington Memorial Bridge or the Lake Union Bridge
State Route 99 (Aurora Avenue) spanning the Lake Washington-Lake Union Ship Canal - Seattle, King County
Nearly 3000 feet long, this steel cantilever structure is one of Seattle's longest and tallest spans. It provided an important early crossing of the Lake Washington Ship Canal. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge (WA-2) and Homer M. Hadley Bridge
Also known as the Lake Washington Floating Bridge
Interstate 90 spanning Lake Washington - Seattle, King County
Built 1940, sunk in 1990 during refurbishing
Since construction, the bridge has been part of the major trunk route crossing the state and accessing Seattle from the east. This pontoon bridge was of unprecedented scale and sophistication and the first constructed of concrete. The concept for its construction was originally proposed by Homer M. Hadley, and designed by the Washington Toll Bridge Authority. The bridge was removed from the National Register of Historic Places when it sank. A replacement, new pontoon bridge using the original approaches was constructed; a second parallel floating structure, the Homer M. Hadley Bridge, was completed in 1989 to accommodate increasing traffic. Both bridges have been evaluated and determined eligible for listing in the NRHP.
Montlake Bridge (WA-108)
State Route 513 spanning the Lake Washington Ship Canal
Seattle, King County
View design drawing. This Seattle landmark is one of six bascule bridges based on a design derived from the Chicago bascule bridge type. This bridge is unique because of its trunnion supports, employed to avoid a patent infringement lawsuit by the Strauss Bascule Bridge Company, and its architectural treatment. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel (WA-109)
Interstate 90 passing under Mount Baker Ridge - Seattle, King County
1940s design, constructed in 1980s
In the context of Western tunneling, this structure is remarkable for both the material it was driven through (clay) and the form it took (twin bore). The tunnel ranks as the world's largest diameter soft earth tunnel. The highly stylized treatment of the east portal demonstrates a Modernistic Architecture applied to an engineering structure. The original tunnel has been listed in the NRHP. An adjacent tunnel was completed in 1989 and has been determined eligible for listing in the NRHP.
Lake Keechelus Snowshed (WA-110)
Interstate 90 - 5.5 miles southeast of Hyak, Kittitas County
Built 1951- Scheduled to be Demolished
This structure is the only concrete snowshed in Washington. The snowshed prevents snow slides from closing the route during the winter. Its construction involved the combination of both precast and cast-in-place elements. This structure has been listed in the NRHP.
Chehalis River Riverside Bridge (WA-111)
State Route 6 spanning the Chehalis River - Chehalis vicinity, Lewis County
This bridge is a riveted Warren through truss with verticals.
South Fork Newaukum River Bridge (WA-112)
State Route 508 spanning the South Fork of the Newaukum River, Onalaska vicinity, Lewis County
This bridge is a good, virtually unaltered example of a riveted pony Warren truss with verticals.
Spokane River Bridge at Fort Spokane (WA-113)
State Route 25 spanning the Spokane River Miles, Lincoln county
This bridge was one of two steel cantilever spans that were constructed to replace structures flooded by the waters rising behind Grand Coulee Dam.
This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Spokane River Bridge at Long Lake Dam (WA-95)
State Route 231 spanning the Spokane River - Reardan vicinity, Lincoln County
The bridge is a late example of an open-spandrel reinforced-concrete ribbed deck arch. ConsidËre hinges were used at the skewbacks to relieve stresses in the arch during construction. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
North and South Hamma Hamma River Bridges (WA-97 & 96)
U.S. Route 101 spanning the Hamma Hamma River - Eldon, Mason County
Built 1923 and 1924
Two identical bridges spanning the north and south branches of the Hamma Hamma River are part of the main highway along the east side of the Olympic Peninsula. Each is a three-hinged reinforced-concrete through arch. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam (WA-102)
State Route 155 spanning the Columbia River - Coulee Dam, Okanogan County
The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation constructed this structure as part of the Grand Coulee Dam‚Columbia Basin Reclamation Project. It is a good example of 1930s steel cantilever bridge design in Washington. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Murray Morgan Bridge (WA-100)
Also known as the City Waterway Bridge (WA-100)
and Thea Foss Waterway Bridge or the 11th Street Bridge
State Route 509 spanning the City Waterway - Tacoma, Pierce County
View design drawing
Designed by Waddell and Harrington, this bridge is an early example of a vertical lift bridge. Three features make it remarkable among vertical lift structures of the day: the unusually great height of the deck above the water, the employment of an overhead span designed for carry a water pipe, and its construction on a variable grade. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Fairfax Bridge (WA-72)
Also known as the James R. O'Farrell Bridge or the Carbon River Bridge
State Route 165 spanning the Carbon River 2.8 mi. south of Carbonado, Pierce County - Built 1921
View design drawing
This structure is one of only two extant three-hinged steel arches in the state of Washington. Its 494-foot length consists of a 240-foot three-hinged spandrel braced rib deck arch, two 14-foot steel towers, and two timber trestle approach spans. All major structural components: the chords of the ribs, the posts of the towers, and the spandrel columns, are composite members employing extensive lattice work. This gives lightness to the structure and contributes to it fine visual quality. At the time of its construction it was the highest bridge in the state. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
McMillin Bridge (WA-73)
Also known as the Puyallup River Bridge
State Route 162 spanning the Puyallup River - McMillin, Pierce County
View design drawing This structure is a rare example of a reinforced-concrete through truss bridge. The form of its members and details are unique. At the time of its construction it was thought to be the longest concrete truss or beam span in the country. The bridge was designed by Homer M. Hadley. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Purdy Bridge (WA-101)
Also known as the Purdy Spit Bridge
State Route 302 spanning the strait between Henderson Bay and Burley Lagoon
Purdy vicinity, Pierce County
An example of a reinforced-concrete box-girder bridge, rare in the United States, this bridge was the longest of its kind when built. Also a Homer Hadley designed structure. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Tacoma Narrows Bridge (WA-99)
State Route 16 spanning the Tacoma Narrows - Tacoma, Pierce County
View design drawing
Tacoma Narrows Bridge History
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge was the first suspension span constructed in the United States after its predecessor's failure in 1940 from wind-induced torsional oscillations. Research of design flaws in the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge led to the use of aerodynamic testing as a standard procedure in suspension span structural analysis. The remains of 'Galoppin Gertie' are listed in the NRHP. The 1950 replacement bridge has been determined eligible for inclusion in the NRHP. A new adjacent suspension bridge was completed in 2007.
Baker River Bridge (WA-105)
Also known as the Henry Thompson Bridge
State Route 20 spanning the Baker River - City of Concrete, Skagit County
The bridge, the only link between the two halves of the city of Concrete, is an early example of a reinforced-concrete open spandrel arch and was reputedly one of the longest single-span concrete structures in the West when built. The bridge is ornamented in a classical style. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Canoe Pass Bridge and Deception Pass Bridge (WA-104 & 103)
State Route 20 spanning Deception Pass - Anacortes vicinity, Skagit County
This Deception Pass steel cantilever and the Canoe Pass steel arch are examples of advanced steel bridge construction. They provide motor vehicle and pedestrian access to Whidbey Island. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Columbia River Bridge at Kettle Falls (WA-91)
Kettle Falls vicinity, Stevens County - U.S. Route 395 spanning the Columbia River -
This bridge was one of two steel cantilever spans built to replace structures flooded by the waters rising behind the Grand Coulee Dam. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.
Harpole Bridge (WA-133)
Also known as the Manning Bridge or the Curtis Lowe Bridge
Spanning the Palouse River - Colfax vicinity, Whitman County
This bridge is a rare example of a wooden boxed-in Howe truss. It was built by the Great Northern Railway when it acquired the Spokane & Inland Empire Railway and upgraded the electric interurban railway to a steam line for freight use, hence the need for the heavy-timbered structure. Now converted to vehicular use, the Harpole bridge in the only extant structure of its type in Washington, and perhaps one of the few remaining in the country. This bridge has been listed in the NRHP.