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Hydraulics - Other Publications

There are a number of informational sources available to assist hydraulic designers. Some of the most useful publications are listed below.

WSDOT personnel interested in any of the manuals listed should contact the Headquarters Hydraulics Office or their region Hydraulics Office/Contact for information on obtaining these resources.

Another source for obtaining these hydraulic publications and technical manuals is the National Technical Information Service, (703) 487-4650, or here:

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 11
Design of Riprap Revetment

Publication No. FHWA-IP-89-016, March 1989

This manual includes information about recognizing erosion potential, erosion mechanisms and riprap failure modes, types of riprap, and paved linings. Design information includes flow types, channel geometry, design discharge, flow resistance, extent of protection, and toe depth. Design guidance is also provided for gabions, precast concrete blocks, and concrete paved linings.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 12
Drainage of Highway Pavements

Report No. FHWA-TS-84-202, March 1984

Hydraulic Engineering Circular (HEC) No. 12 is being phased out and replaced with HEC 22. HEC 12 may become difficult to obtain in the future.

This publication discusses design methodology for roadway drainage. It includes design charts and procedures developed from laboratory tests of interception capabilities and efficiencies of pavement drainage inlets. Charts are provided for seven different grate types, slotted drain inlets, and combination inlets on grade and sump locations. The text includes discussion of the effects of roadway geometry on pavement drainage, storm runoff estimating methods, flow in gutters, and other topics.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 13
Hydraulic Design of Improved Inlets for Culverts

August 1972

This publication includes extensive research and test results for improving culvert flow capacity by modifying inlet geometry. The publication contains design examples and numerous charts and graphs.  WSDOT typically does not use improved inlets due to their high cost. Often it is less expensive to install a larger culvert. However, for some conditions, an improved inlet may be the best option.


Structural Design Manual for Improved Inlets and Culverts
Report No. FHWA-IP-83-6, June 1983

This manual is a supplement to HEC No. 13.

The manual provides structural design methods for culverts and improved inlets. Methods for structural analysis are included with a complete design procedure and example problems for both circular and box culverts. Example plans are included for headwalls, wingwalls, side tapered and slope tapered culverts.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14
Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels

August 1975, Revised September 1983

This publication provides design information for analyzing energy dissipation problems at culvert outlets and in open channels. Energy dissipation methods using hydraulic jump, forced hydraulic jump, impact, drop structure, stilling well, and riprap are discussed.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15
Design of Roadside Channels with Flexible Linings
Publication No. FHWA-IP-87-7, April 1988

This document provides guidance for the design of stable conveyance channels using flexible linings. Design procedures for riprap, woven paper net, jute net, fiberglass roving, curled wood mat, synthetic mat, and straw with net are discussed.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18
Evaluating Scour at Bridges
Publication No. FHWA-IP-90-017, November 1995

This manual provides guidance for designing bridges to resist scour, evaluating bridges for vulnerability to scour, inspecting bridges for scour, and providing scour countermeasures.


Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 20
Stream Stability at Highway Structures
Publication No. FHWA-IP-90-014, November 1995

This document provides guidelines for identifying stream instability problems at highway stream crossings and for the selection and design of appropriate countermeasures to mitigate potential damages to bridges and other highway components at stream crossings.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22
Urban Drainage Design Manual
Publication No. FHWA-SA-96-078, November 1996

This document is a complete set of guidelines for all aspects of urban drainage design. It includes discussions of hydrology, pavement drainage, channel flow, storm drains, pump stations, and water quality control.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23
Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures
Experience, Selection, and Design Guidance

Publication No. FHWA-HI-97-030, July 1997

This document provides guidelines for the selection and design of appropriate countermeasures to mitigate potential damage to bridges at stream crossings. A design matrix showing eight different types of countermeasures for bridge scour and stream instability problems is included.


Hydraulic Design Series No. 5
Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts
Report No. FHWA-IP-85-15, September 1985

This publication provides hydraulic design methods and techniques for the analysis and sizing of highway culverts. Culvert design methods are presented for both conventional culverts and culverts with improved inlets. Unique culvert applications, erosion and sediment control, debris control, structural aspects, and long span culverts are discussed.

Concrete Pipe Design Manual
American Concrete Pipe Association, March 1990

This book contains information about hydraulic and structural design of sewers and culverts. Strength of concrete pipes, manholes, and precast concrete box csections are discussed. The book contains numerous tables and graphs including information on culvert capacity, flow in pipe and box sections, trench backfill loads, and embankment fill loads.

Handbook of Steel Drainage & Highway Construction Products
American Iron and Steel Institute,

This book includes information about corrugated steel pipe, pipe arches, bottomless arches, and coupling bands. Several charts and graphs are included in this book to aid in the structural design of steel pipes and arches.

Biotechnical and Soil Bioengineering Slope Stabilization
A Practical Guide for Erosion Control
Donald H. Gray and Robbin B. Sotir, 1996

This book describes soil bioengineering techniques that can be used for slope stabilization such as live fascines, live staking, live crib walls, slope gratings, branchpacking, and brushlayering. The book also includes information about using vegetation in porous hard armour revetments, such as riprap, gabion mattresses, and articulated blocks.